Friday, 6 September 2013

Lake Tuz of Turkey




Location Central Anatolia
Coordinates 38°44′N 33°23′ECoordinates: 38°44′N 33°23′E
Type endorheic
hypersaline
Primary inflows Peçenek Çayı, Melendiz Çayı
Catchment area 11,900 km2 (4,600 sq mi)
Basin countries Turkey
Max. length 80 km (50 mi)
Max. width 50 km (31 mi)
Surface area 1,600 km2 (620 sq mi)
Average depth 0.5 m (2 ft)
Max. depth 1.5 m (5 ft)
Surface elevation 905 m (2,969 ft)
Settlements Şereflikoçhisar


Lake Tuz (Turkish: Tuz Gölü meaning Salt Lake) is the second largest lake in Turkey with its 1,665 km2 (643 sq mi) surface area and one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world. It is located in the Central Anatolia Region, 105 km (65 mi) northeast of Konya, 150 km (93 mi) south-southeast of Ankara and 57 km (35 mi) northwest of Aksaray. The lake, occupying a tectonic depression in the central plateau of Turkey, is fed by two major streams, groundwater and surface water, but has no outlet. Brackish marshes have formed where channels and streams enter the lake. Arable fields surround the lake, except in the south and southwest where extensive seasonally flooded salt-steppe occurs.


For most of the year, it is very shallow (approx.0.4 m (1 ft)). During winter part of the salt is dissolved in the fresh water that is introduced to the lake by precipitation and surface runoff (to 32.9% salinity). During the summer the lake dries up exposing an average of 30 cm thick salt layer in August. This mechanism is used as a basis for the process of the salt mines in the lake. The three mines operating in the lake produce 63% of the salt consumed in Turkey. The salt mining generates industrial activity in the region, mainly related to salt processing and refining.


In 2001, Lake Tuz was declared a specially protected area, including all of the lake surface and surrounding waterbeds and some of the important neighboring steppe areas. The main Turkish breeding colony of Greater Flamingo is present on a group of islands in the southern part of the lake. Greater White-fronted Goose is the second largest breeder here. Lesser Kestrel is a common breeder in surrounding villages.





















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